Heart disease or cardiovascular disease is the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins).

Cardiovascular surgery is a surgery on the heart and/or great vessels performed by cardiac surgeons. Frequently, it is done to treat complications of ischemic heart disease (for example, coronary artery bypass grafting), correct congenital heart disease, or treat valvular heart disease caused by various things. It also includes heart transplantation.